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Indian Democracy at Risk

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Author: Muhammad Mahmood Sultan

MS Scholar, Department of International Relations

Muslim Youth University, Islamabad


The purpose of this study is to examine how India’s maritime ambitions under the Modi administration affect Pakistan’s security. The implications of India’s strategic maritime policies for Pakistan’s national security will be the subject of this article. Moreover, it will analyze the local elements in the Indian Sea and the potential for the struggle between the two atomic-equipped opponents. In the article’s conclusion, policy recommendations to reduce the potential threats posed by India’s maritime ambitions will be made.

The implications of India’s maritime ambitions on Pakistan’s security, the difficulties Pakistan faces in maintaining a balance of power in the region, and some policy recommendations for Pakistan to mitigate the potential threats arising from India’s growing naval capabilities are all summarized in the abstract.

KEYWORDS:  India, Modi regime, maritime ambitions, Pakistan, security, naval capabilities, power balance, Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman, sea denial, submarines, regional cooperation, diplomatic efforts, Kashmir dispute.


Under the Modi administration, India’s strategic and economic interests have increasingly shifted toward the maritime sector. The nation has embarked on an ambitious program to modernize its navy, which includes the creation of submarines, aircraft carriers, and other advanced naval assets. To project India’s influence in the Indian Ocean and beyond, the Modi government has also launched several initiatives, such as the SAGAR (Security and Growth for All in the Region) policy.

The developing Indian maritime capacities have brought worries up in Pakistan about the potential security ramifications of India’s oceanic aspirations. Pakistan’s security foundation has generally seen the Indian Naval force as a possible danger and has looked to keep an overall influence in the district. To comprehend the dynamics of the regional power balance, it is therefore essential to investigate India’s maritime ambitions and their impact on Pakistan’s security.


This examination article depends on a subjective exploration philosophy, which incorporates a broad writing survey of important scholarly sources, government reports, and media articles. The study examines the Indian and Pakistani naval capabilities, their strategic policies, and the Indian Ocean’s regional security dynamics.

To get a better understanding of their perspectives on the issue, the research also includes interviews with naval experts and policymakers from India and Pakistan. The meetings were led over email, and the reactions were broken down to recognize key subjects and examples.

 Background of India’s maritime ambitions.

Since the country was well-known for its naval might and marine trade in antiquity, India has had maritime ambitions. India’s maritime aspirations in the modern age have been impacted by a variety of reasons, including its strategic position, expanding economic and security interests in the Indian Ocean, and the necessity to protect its island’s expansive coastline possessions.

  • Under the Modi administration, India has pursued an ambitious maritime agenda to become a major maritime power. This agenda includes the development of maritime infrastructure, the expansion of the Indian Navy, and the encouragement of a “blue economy” based on the wise use of marine resources. India’s maritime ambitions are rooted in several strategic imperatives.
  •  Before anything else, India must secure its maritime communication routes and protect its preferences in the Indian Sea region because it has a rapidly rising economy that is very susceptible to trade. Protecting its expansive coastline and island holdings is part of this since they are susceptible to several security risks like terrorism, smuggling, and piracy.
  • Indian desire, India desiresto play a bigger role in establishing the security framework for the Indian Ocean and expanding its strategic clout in the region. India sees itself as a natural counterbalance to China’s growing influence in the region and is attempting to leverage its important alliances with the US, Japan, and other like-minded countries to further its interests there.

At last, India’s sea aspirations are likewise determined by a longing to take advantage of the huge financial capability of the sea. India is interested in developing a variety of ocean-based industries like fishing, aquaculture, shipping, and offshore energy because it has over 7,500 kilometers of coastline and several island territories.

As a whole, India’s maritime ambitions are part of a larger strategic plan to increase the country’s influence on the world stage and advance its economic and security interests in the region. However, particularly in the context of relations between India and Pakistan, these goals have significant repercussions for regional security and stability.

Modi’s maritime policy.

Under Prime Minister Narendra Modi, India has adopted an ambitious maritime strategy to make the country a major maritime power. A few essential impulses and requirements may be used to explain the oceanic strategy of the Modi government.

  • Expansion of the Indian Navy: As a key component of its oceanic policy, the Modi administration has placed a strong emphasis on the growth and modernization of the Indian Naval force. In addition to brand-new surface vessels, submarines, and aircraft, the naval force has also received state-of-the-art communication and reconnaissance systems. The government has also started several projects with the aim of enhancing India’s in-house shipbuilding skills and creating new technology for naval operations.
  • Development of maritime infrastructure: Ports, shipyards, and beachfront interstates are examples of places where the Modi administration has focused on improving the oceanic framework. The government has started a variety of projects to build new ports, modernize existing ones, and increase the connection between ports and hinterland regions. The “Sagarmala” program, which aims to expand India’s coastal economy and promote both coastal and interior shipping, has also been introduced by the government.
  • Promotion of a blue economy: The Modi administration has made a big deal out of advancing a “blue economy” that is centered on utilizing marine resources sustainably. The government has started several projects to boost ocean-based industries including shipping, aquaculture, fishing, and offshore energy. A “National Marine Fisheries Policy” was also started by the government with the objectives of protecting marine biodiversity and promoting ecologically sustainable fishing techniques.
  • Strengthening regional partnerships, The Modi administration has sought to strengthen India’s alliances with many countries bordering the Indian Sea, including the US, Japan, Australia, and other comparable countries. The government has given priority to developing these countries’ security cooperation, information exchange, and economic and cultural connections.

Generally speaking, the Modi administration’s sea strategy is intended to make India a major sea power and advance the country’s financial and security intrigues in the Indian Sea region. In any event, these forces have important implications for territorial stability and security, particularly regarding ties between India and Pakistan.

India’s partnerships.

India has been actively seeking to develop strategic partnerships and deepen its engagement with other countries in the Indian Ocean region to enhance its maritime capabilities and promote regional stability. Some of India’s key partnerships in the region include:

  • United States: India has been strengthening its partnership with the United States in the maritime domain through various initiatives such as the Indo-Pacific strategy and the Malabar naval exercise. The two countries have also been working to enhance their interoperability and cooperation in areas such as maritime security, counter-piracy, and humanitarian assistance and disaster relief.
  • Japan: India has also been strengthening its strategic partnership with Japan in the maritime domain. The two countries have been working to enhance their maritime security cooperation through various initiatives such as the India-Japan-US trilateral maritime exercise, the Japan-India-Australia trilateral dialogue, and the Japan-India-Africa maritime partnership.
  • Australia: India has been deepening its partnership with Australia in the maritime domain through initiatives such as the Quad (Quadrilateral Security Dialogue) and the AUSINDEX (Australia-India Exercise) naval exercise. The two countries have also been working to enhance their cooperation in areas such as maritime security, counter-terrorism, and disaster management.
  • France: India has a strategic partnership with France, which includes cooperation in the maritime domain. The two countries have been working to enhance their cooperation in areas such as maritime security, maritime domain awareness, and joint naval exercises.
  • Russia: India has a long-standing strategic partnership with Russia, which includes cooperation in the maritime domain. The two countries have been working to enhance their naval cooperation through joint exercises such as INDRA and the supply of advanced naval platforms and weapons systems.

In addition to these partnerships, India has also been working to deepen its engagement with other countries in the Indian Ocean region through initiatives such as the Indian Ocean Naval Symposium (IONS) and the Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA).

India’s partnerships in the region have helped it to enhance its maritime capabilities, promote regional stability, and counter growing Chinese influence in the region. However, these partnerships have also faced challenges, particularly in the context of the complex geopolitical dynamics in the region.

 Impact on Pakistan’s Security

Pakistan has expressed worry over the security repercussions of India’s expanding marine capabilities. According to the Security Foundation, India’s modernization program for its naval forces might endanger the safety of Pakistan’s citizens. Before India’s expanding marine capabilities, Pakistan depended on its military and aviation-based armed forces to maintain the balance of power in the region. Pakistan’s marine prowess is modest compared to India. In addition to recently purchasing eight submarines from China, Pakistan only operates the PNS Babur, a warship capable of transporting aircraft. Despite Pakistan’s naval force also having frigates, corvettes, and rocket boats, it has inferior capabilities to those of India Pakistan has been concerned about the possibility of an Indian maritime bar of its ports because of the naval force’s capacity for creation, which might have a substantial impact on the economy of the country. Pakistan’s oceanic security and its position over the Middle Eastern Ocean and the Bay of Oman may be threatened by India’s maritime domination. Pakistan’s economy and security might be severely impacted by any disruption to maritime communication because the country mostly relies on its water routes for communication. Pakistan’s marine infrastructure would be put to the test by India’s expanding maritime capabilities. The foundation of Pakistan’s maritime policy is the concept of ocean forswearing, which includes the use of submarines and other nautical tools to prevent India from entering its ports and disrupting its maritime trade. However, Pakistan’s ability to successfully execute its ocean refusal procedure has been made more difficult by the growing Indian maritime capabilities.

Additionally, Pakistan is concerned that India’s expanding naval presence in the Indian Ocean could encircle Pakistan and reduce Pakistan’s strategic options. India has built up military installations in the area, especially in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, giving it critical access to the South China Sea and the Straits of Malacca. Pakistan’s strategic choices may be constrained by India’s expanding regional dominance, which may also make Pakistan more susceptible to Indian oppression.

Pakistan’s concerns

Pakistan has expressed concerns about India’s maritime ambitions and the potential implications for regional stability and security. These concerns can be broadly categorized into three main areas:

  • Naval power asymmetry: Pakistan has concerns about a growing maritime rivalry between India and Pakistan in the region of the Indian Sea. India has a significant advantage over Pakistan, which has little naval force, due to the increasing strength of its maritime power and presence in the area. India may use this disparity in strength to project its influence and authority locally and undermine Pakistan’s security.
  • Maritime boundary disputes: In the Bedouin regions of the Indian Ocean, particularly in the Sir River area, India and Pakistan have formed maritime limit disputes. If India continues to pursue its oceanic goals in the region, these questions might develop into a military conflict. Pakistan has expressed concern over India’s readiness to take part in these exchanges while requiring a goal of these discussions through dialogue and peaceful ways.
  • Indian Ocean dominance: India’s efforts to establish its military presence in the Indian Sea region worry Pakistan. India has been able to expand its maritime presence and influence in the region and set up an organization of military stations and offices thanks to its crucial alliances with the US, Japan, and other countries. This has raised concerns in Pakistan about India’s ability to command important water routes and project its dominance beyond its immediate neighborhood.

The maritime doctrine of India.

  • India’s sea concept serves as a framework for its key objectives and vision for maritime and oceanic security. The idea was presented for the first time in 2009, and it was then updated in 2015. The tenet is based on India’s genuine oceanic heritage and its important objectives in the current global security environment. India’s oceanic philosophy is supported by four key pillars.
  • National security: The sea principle emphasizes the Indian Sea’s fundamental importance to India’s public safety. The Indian Sea, which is home to a variety of valuable resources including oil, gas, and minerals, is seen as an important maritime route for international trade and industry. The law recognizes India’s need to safeguard its maritime advantages and maintain a positive overall presence in the Indian Sea region.
  • Cooperative engagement: The marine strategy recognizes that exchange and coordinated efforts with different countries are urged to keep up with sea harmony and security in the Indian Sea region. The idea puts major areas of strength for the benefit of fashioning coalitions and participation with different countries, both inside and outside the locale. The approach additionally encourages further developed correspondence and insight dividing among oceanic security associations.
  • Capability development: The maritime industry believes that commerce and easier collaboration with other nations is crucial to maintaining ocean security and amicability in the Indian Ocean region. The idea emphasizes the need of forging alliances and collaborating with diverse countries, both inside and beyond the region. The technique also encourages newly developed communication and information sharing amongst marine security organizations.
  • Diplomacy and governance: The marine precept recognizes the need for strong leadership and discretion to achieve provincial stability and security. The agreement emphasizes the relevance of considering international law and norms as well as the need for more significant cooperation among territorial states to address common problems. To address the common resources and issues of the Indian Sea region, the tenet also calls for the development of effective sea administration designs.

Overall, the maritime doctrine of India reflects India’s ambition to become a leading maritime power and to secure its maritime interests in the Indian Ocean region. However, this ambition also raises concerns among other regional countries, particularly Pakistan, about the potential implications for regional stability and security.

Indian Ocean Naval Symposium (IONS).

A multilateral debate with marine representatives from 27 different countries is called the Indian Sea Marine Conference (Particles). To promote participation and coordinated action among the naval forces of the Indian Sea region, the discussion was set forward in 2008. The Particles is based in India and has members from all around the Indian Sea region, including South Africa, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, the Maldives, Oman, and Oman. The conference provides an opportunity for different nations to discuss topics related to local stability, sea space awareness, and maritime security. The Particles’ main objectives are:

  • to enhance interoperability amongst individual naval units to increase coordination and response to maritime risks and challenges.
  • To enhance data exchange and restrict efforts to better the marine region while paying respect to individual states.
  • To develop trust-building efforts and measures among partner states to ensure a calm and stable maritime environment.

The Data Combination Center-Indian Sea Locale (IFC-IOR), which is located in Master Gramme, India, is one of a few working panels and meetings that The Particles possesses. The IFC-IOR is a cooperative data-sharing center that continuously provides information on maritime security threats in the Indian Sea region. In the Indian Sea region, The Particles have emerged as a vital gathering for boosting provincial security and soundness. However, international tensions and rivalries between partner countries, especially between India and Pakistan, limit its adequacy. Over time, the Particles provide a vital platform for enhancing communication and involvement among regional naval forces as well as for addressing common security issues in the Indian Sea region.

Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA)

The Indian Marine Edge Affiliation (IORA) is an international organization that brings together countries from the Indian Sea region to promote collaboration and involvement in areas including trade, speculation, marine security, and predictable outcomes. The organization, which covers about 20% of the global economy and more than 33% of the world’s population, was founded in 1997 with 14 member states. Since then, it has expanded to 23 member nations. The IORA identifies four key need areas:

  • Maritime safety and security: The IORA is focused on enhancing maritime safety and security in the Indian Sea region through information exchange, boundary setting, and collaborative efforts. The organization also works to stop illicit fishing and other unethical activities including exploitation and piracy in the water.
  • Trade and investment: By reducing exchange barriers and promoting territorial reconciliation, the IORA hopes to promote trade and speculation among divided nations. The organization also promotes the growth of businesses and small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).
  • Fisheries management: The IORA fights illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing in the Indian Sea region and works to develop practical fisheries that the board practices. The organization also prioritizes supporting local fishing networks’ livelihoods.
  • Disaster risk management: Through catastrophe risk reduction and executive measures, the IORA seeks to strengthen the resilience of member nations to catastrophic events and other crises. The alliance also focuses on increasing the capacity of partner states to respond to emergencies and disasters.

The IORA offers part countries a gathering to discuss shared issues and make helpful answers for them. In any case, the association’s adequacy is compelled by the different needs and interests of its part countries as well as the international conventions and clashes nearby. Notwithstanding, the IORA keeps on being a significant scene for progressing territorial mix and collaboration in the Indian Sea district.

Pakistan’s response.

Pakistan has expressed its concerns over India’s maritime ambitions and its emerging marine capabilities in the Indian Sea region. India’s expanding maritime presence is seen as a threat to the country’s interests and public safety, particularly in light of the long-standing regional disputes between the two countries, such as the Jammu and Kashmir problem. Pakistan has provided many responses to India’s maritime ambitions.

  • Firstly, it has worked to strengthen its marine capabilities to compete with India’s growing naval dominance. The country has invested money in the expansion and modernization of its naval armada, including the acquisition of new maritime platforms and armament systems.
  • Secondly Pakistan has consolidated its crucial ties with other countries in the region, notably China. An important local organization has been developed by Pakistan and China to work together in the marine sector. Pakistan’s efforts to modernize its marine capabilities, particularly its stockpile of cutting-edge weapons frameworks and maritime stages, have received backing from China. China has also been working on the development of the Gwadar Port, a crucial deep-water port located on the Bedouin Ocean in southwest Pakistan.
  • Thirdly, Pakistan has made an effort to promote local involvement and dialogue on maritime security problems. To promote territorial steadiness and involvement, the country has been actively participating in regional conferences like the Indian Sea Maritime Conference (Particles) and the Indian Sea Edge Association (IORA).
  • Finally, Pakistan has also been attempting to communicate with India on maritime security issues. However, due to the more complicated political and regional issues between the two countries, they have not yet had the opportunity to make significant progress in their respective negotiations.

In short, Pakistan has reacted to India’s maritime ambitions by enhancing its marine capabilities, strengthening critical partnerships with neighboring countries, promoting provincial engagement and exchange on sea security problems, and engaging in dialogue with India. However, the more pressing political and regional issues between the two countries are preventing these initiatives from moving forward. Pakistan generally views India’s maritime ambitions as a potential threat to its security and important regional interests. Pakistan understands the value of maritime security and the necessity to safeguard its interests in the Indian Sea, but in light of exchange and commitment with all partners, it has needed a more helpful and all-encompassing approach to deal with local security.

Geopolitical Implications.

  • India’s desperation for the oceans and expanding marine capabilities have significant regional and global implications, particularly in light of the ongoing rivalry between China and India for minerals.
  • India’s rise as a regional maritime power: India has emerged as a territorial sea power in the Indian Sea region thanks to its growing maritime capabilities and important organizations. This has significant effects on the district’s overall impact and local stability. China, which sees India’s growing maritime capabilities as a threat to its core advantages, has expressed concern over India’s rise as a sea power.
  • China’s response: China has been closely monitoring India’s maritime ambitions and has been responding by strengthening its marine capabilities and deepening its connections with neighboring countries. China has been working hard to increase its maritime capabilities, including the development of cutting-edge naval platforms and military systems. As expected grounds for its maritime forces, China has also been working on improving important ports in the region, including the Gwadar port in Pakistan and the harbor at Hambantota in Sri Lanka.
  • Strategic competition: India’s emergence as a regional maritime power and China’s response have sparked a crucial conflict between the two countries in the Indian maritime region. This resistance has significant effects on regional important components and territorial dependability. Additionally, it has led to growing tensions between the two countries, particularly in light of their long-running regional disputes.
  • Impact on smaller countries: The major competition between China and India has considerable effects on smaller, less developed countries in the region, particularly those that are located along important ocean communication routes. These countries are caught in the conflict between China and India and are going to feel increasing pressure to align themselves with either.
  • Regional cooperation: India’s oceanic ambitions have also sparked a growing focus on regional cooperation and discussion of maritime security challenges. The Indian Sea Maritime Conference (Particles) and the Indian Sea Edge Affiliation (IORA), which have aided in increasing territorial security and participation, have grown as a result of this.

In conclusion, India’s maritime ambitions have significant global implications for the region, particularly in light of the ongoing struggle between China and India for resources. The rise of India as a regional maritime power has sparked fierce competition between the two countries, which has implications for regional vitality and local stability. The conflict between China and India has also led to growing tensions between the two countries and has serious repercussions for lesser neighboring countries.

Literature Review.

The present investigation of India’s oceanic goals under the Modi regime and its impact on Pakistan’s security will be summarized in this writing audit. The audit includes research-related books, publications, and articles. India has recently emerged in the Indian marine region as a prominent marine power. India’s desire to travel to sea has been influenced by several factors, including its expanding economy, growing energy demand, and the need to protect its maritime communication cables. India’s marine capabilities have received special attention under the leadership of Prime Minister Modi, which aspires to make the country a dominant maritime force in the region. There is a growing body of literature that has explored India’s maritime ambitions and their implications for regional security. For instance, in their article, “India’s Maritime Ambitions: Implications for Regional Security,” David Brewster and Rory Metcalf argue that India’s growing naval capabilities have raised concerns among its neighbors, including Pakistan. The authors suggest that India’s focus on building a blue-water navy could potentially challenge China’s maritime ambitions in the region. In essence, Anit Mukherjee examines India’s maritime procedure under the Modi system in his book, “India’s Maritime Technique and Asian Security,” and argues that India’s expanding maritime capabilities are aimed at extending dominance in the region and defending its preferences. Mukherjee suggests that India’s maritime policy is motivated by a desire to protect its ocean lines of communication and oppose China’s growing influence in the region. Several researchers have focused on the effects India’s maritime ambitions will have on Pakistan’s security. Shabbir Ahmad Khan and Muhammad Rashid Tabassum claim in their essay, “India’s Sea Regulation: Ramifications for Pakistan,” that Indian maritime rule poses a serious threat to Pakistan’s security. The authors contend that India’s maritime strategy, which emphasizes the development of a blue-water naval force and the organization of vessels that can be transported by plane, may undermine Pakistan’s maritime security. Also covered in Syed Ali Zia Jaffery’s article, “India’s Sea Desires and Pakistan’s Reaction,” is Pakistan’s response to India’s expanding maritime capabilities. According to Jaffery, Pakistan has responded to India’s oceanic objectives by strengthening its maritime capabilities, particularly by acquiring state-of-the-art submarines and improving maritime education aimed at fending against India’s naval system. According to the present investigation, India’s maritime ambitions under the Modi regime would have a significant impact on territorial security, particularly Pakistan’s security. To address their well-known differences and improve local harmony and security, India and Pakistan must be willing to engage in dialogue and participation.

Findings of the Study

A few significant findings have come from the focus on India’s oceanic ambitions under the Modi administration and its impact on Pakistan’s security. These consist of,

  1. India’s maritime ambitions are motivated by both practical and financial considerations: India has placed a strong focus on strengthening its marine capabilities as a result of its growing economy, increasing energy demands, and concerns about ocean security. India’s maritime ambitions are also intended to defend its dominance in the region and counter China’s expanding influence.
  2.  India’s naval strategy is centered around a blue-water navy: India’s maritime system places a strong emphasis on the development of a blue-water naval force capable of expanding its influence in the region and protecting its interests. The positioning of warships that can carry airplanes and the acquisition of cutting-edge marine resources are essential components of India’s maritime strategy.
  3. Pakistan is concerned about India’s growing naval capabilities: The development of a blue-water naval force capable of expanding influence in the region and defending its objectives is prioritized by India’s maritime system. Key components of India’s maritime strategy include the deployment of warships that can carry aircraft and the acquisition of cutting-edge marine resources.
  4. Pakistan has responded by developing its naval capabilities: Pakistan has countered India’s expanding maritime capabilities by strengthening its maritime capabilities, including the acquisition of state-of-the-art submarines and the development of a maritime theory intended to undermine India’s maritime strategy.
  5. India’s partnerships in the region have implications for Pakistan’s security Organizations of India alongside other countries in the region, such as the US and Japan, have recommendations for Pakistan’s security. These groups may even strengthen India’s marine capabilities while weakening Pakistan’s ability to protect its oceanic advantages.
  6. Engagement, dialogue, and cooperation are necessary to promote regional peace and stability: To address their well-known differences and achieve territorial harmony and soundness, India and Pakistan must be committed to dialogue and cooperation. A positive dialogue between the two countries might promote a greater understanding of one another’s security issues, help to develop confidence and reduce tensions.

In general, the analysis advises that the Modi system’s oceanic ambitions of India would have a significant impact on territorial security, particularly Pakistan’s security. The study emphasizes the necessity for Pakistan and India to engage in a constructive dialogue to resolve their security concerns and promote local harmony and reliability.


The following recommendations are put out in light of the findings of the focus on India’s maritime ambitions under the Modi administration and their impact on Pakistan’s security.:

  • Strengthen its maritime capabilities: To maintain a power balance with India in the Indian Sea, Pakistan should increase its maritime capabilities, including the purchase of submarines and other cutting-edge naval equipment.
  • Strengthen regional cooperation. To strengthen maritime security in the Indian marine area and reduce possible risks brought on by India’s expanding sea capabilities, Pakistan could assist regional governments like China.
  • Encourage an oceanic strategy: To successfully fight India’s maritime supremacy, Pakistan should draw out a thorough sea strategy that includes elements of ocean control and ocean disavowal.
  • Enhance diplomatic efforts: Pakistan should take part in strategic initiatives to identify its unique disputes with India, especially the Kashmir dispute, to reduce the likelihood of conflict in the region.
  • Engage in fruitful dialogue: To address their well-known differences and promote provincial peace and stability, India and Pakistan should engage in fruitful debate. Building trust, reducing pressure, and promoting a deeper understanding of one another’s security concerns should be the main goals of this conversation.
  • Look into ways to increase certainty: To increase openness and develop confidence between the two countries, certainty-building initiatives including maritime-to-maritime dialogues, collaborative marine activities, and data sharing might be looked into.
  • resolve concerns about maritime security: India and Pakistan should communicate to resolve one another’s concerns regarding maritime security. This might serve as a record of talks about common problems between the two countries, such as theft, sneaking, and illegal fishing.
  • Strengthen regional multilateral systems: Regional multilateral organizations like the Indian Sea Maritime Discussion (Particles) and the Indian Sea Edge Affiliation (IORA) can provide India and Pakistan with a platform to network with other countries in the region and advance more significant cooperation on ocean security.
  • Avoid inflammatory behavior: India and Pakistan should refrain from any provocative behavior that would increase pressure and weaken provincial authority. The two countries should exercise restraint and avoid any actions that can be viewed as a threat to the security of the other.
  •  Increased financial integration might promote regional stability and concord. India and Pakistan should integrate their economies more significantly. This might involve initiatives like the development of trade and investment corridors, collaborative infrastructure development, and a stronger network between the two countries.
  •  Connect with other territorial powers: To develop more significant cooperation and reduce pressures in the region, India and Pakistan should get in touch with other territorial powers like China, the US, and Japan.
  • Increase inter-personal interaction: Inter-personal contact may play a vital role in fostering greater understanding and lowering tensions between India and Pakistan. Drives like social trades, understudy trades, and the tourism sector may be included in this.

In general, the ideas suggest that India and Pakistan focus on engaging in a fruitful dialogue to resolve their security concerns and develop peace and stability in their respective provinces. The ideas also stress the importance of expanding regional financial integration, strengthening multilateral provincial systems, and avoiding any aggressive actions that may weaken regional power.


Overall, India’s maritime ambitions under the Modi administration have had a significant impact on regional security, particularly in light of India’s ties with Pakistan. India’s maritime education, which emphasizes the nation’s crucial location in the Indian Sea and the need to increase power there, has led to a significant expansion of India’s marine capabilities and the development of new sea organizations. Pakistan has expressed concerns over India’s maritime aspirations, particularly about the development of essential infrastructure like ports and naval bases in the Indian Sea region. These concerns are rooted in Pakistan’s security concerns since India’s maritime expansion may be perceived as a threat to Pakistan’s key advantages. The outcomes of this study reveal that to resolve their security concerns and enhance territorial peace and strength, India and Pakistan should engage in constructive dialogue. Measures to increase certainty, such as maritime-to-maritime dialogues and cooperative oceanic activities, might be looked into to promote openness and create confidence between the two countries. Provincial multilateral organizations like the Particles and IORA, for instance, can enable Pakistan and India a platform to connect with other countries in the region and develop a more prominent role in marine security. Greater financial integration between India and Pakistan could also advance regional stability and dependability. Initiatives to increase people-to-people contact should be encouraged to foster greater understanding between the two countries. In principle, India and Pakistan should discuss their respective security concerns and try to establish a stable and peaceful maritime order in the Indian Sea region. The suggestions made in this study provide a roadmap for achieving this goal, highlighting the necessity for constructive dialogue, confidence-building measures, and more significant local engagement.


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